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cooling system principle, maintenance, parts and function


Cooling System Principle maintenance, cooling system Parts & Function and flush out procedure


cooling system principle, maintenance:-

What is Cooling system:-

As the name clearly means Cool means cool and this is the system which keeps the engine cool. Now comes the reason why the engine is cooled, so let me tell you that when the action of combustion takes place inside an engine cylinder, at that time the temperature reaches from around 2200 degree to 2500 degree, this temperature is so high that Any metal can be melted and liquefied, so how can the engine work at this temperature. If this temperature is not controlled, then the engine will not work, it will soon deteriorate, or else the engine will cease. So this system controls the temperature is called the cooling system. 

works of the cooling system: - 

1. To remove excessive heat of the engine.
2. To keep the engine cool at all speeds and operations and to provide a fixed temperature.

cooling system principle, maintenance

Cooling System principle:-

In order to bring the heat from one place to another, it is necessary to have a difference of heat so that the heating goes from the hot place to the cold place, and this heat from the warm place to the cold place. We can use solid, liquid, or gas to bring it to.

There is the three principles of moving heat from one place to another -

1. Conduction: -  

The property of moving from one particle of any metal to another particle is called conduction. If we heat a metal from one end, then in a while the whole metal gets heated, it is called conduction. It occurs in solid metal and depends on the heat conductivity of that metal.

2. Convection:- 

If any fluid or gas is heated, its heated violence rises lightly, and due to heavy cold violence, it comes down and takes its place, thus making this action go on continuously. This creates a continuity. This action is called a convection. This is achieved in liquid and gas only, and if its effect is to increase, then we can use a pump.

cooling system principle, maintenance

3. Radiation : - 

Any object rejects its heat in its vicinity, just as the Sun dismisses its heat, which we feel here in the same way, if there is a fire somewhere, then the areas near it Heat also spreads in it is called radiation. Radiation is the process of spreading your heat around you. It can be anything solid, liquid, gas.

Types of cooling system:-

1. Air Cooling System : -

In this type of cooling system, the cold air of the atmosphere collides with the cylinder head, cylinder block and engine and the heat of the engine She moves inside and cools the engine. Cylinder heads and cylinder blocks of engines with such a kalinga system are made 5 to 15 times larger so that more air is bumped and the engine cools more. To increase the effectiveness of this system work, you can also apply fan or blower. In this type of engine, the cylinder head and cylinder block are made of aluminum and fins are placed over them so that the incoming air stops in these fins for some time. There is a separate detachable type in it.

2.    Water / Liquid Cooling System: -

In this cooling system, water goes to the engine using water. Water cooling systems are of the following types:-

cooling system principle, maintenance

(a) Direct Liquid Cooling System   : - 

In such a system, the engine head and the water jacket are cut around the cylinder block and when the engine runs. So water is poured from one side in that water jacket and the water flows out from the other side after moving in the water jacket of the engine. It does not store water, the system is cheap, maintenance work is easy and the design is easy, but this system cannot be installed in the running trains.

(b) Indirect Liquid Cooling System   : - 

In this cooling system, the cooling fluid is filled by placing a container or radiator in it and it is repeatedly circulated around the engine and the engine is cooled. Goes, if the water level decreases then it is met.
Indirect water cooling system is also of three types -

(i)   Thermosyphon System   : - This system works on the principle of thermosyphon, the water is heated due to heat in the engine cylinder and due to the hot water being lighter. It rises up and cool water replaces it, a circle is formed here it is called thermosyphon and on the same principle the engine cools. Radiator is used to store water in it and water is also cooled in the radiator. The system of this train used to come in old trains.

Advantages -
(aa) The working temperature of the engine is achieved quickly.
(ab) There is no loss of power in any way.
(ac) System is easy to design and parts are also less.
(ad) Maintenance of the system is low.

cooling system principle, maintenance
Disadvantage -
(aa) Water level had to be repeatedly met.
(ab) could not cool the engine.
(ac) The system did not work when there was a climb or slope ahead of the car.
(ad) The radiator had to be made very large.

(b)   Thermosyphon Assisted by pump system : - 

To remove the gaps in the thermosyphon system and to speed up the convection of water, a pump was installed, this accelerated the flow of water and Helped to dismiss the engine heat quickly and quickly. Also, by applying the pump, the problem of climbing and sloping in front of the car was also overcome. Nevertheless, some deficiencies were found in this system, this system also has some advantages and disadvantages, which are as follows

(aa) the flow of water was accelerated.                               
(ab) Prevent from engine overheating.                             
(ac) Climbing and sloping problems were eliminated.
(aa) The water level used to decrease repeatedly which had to be fulfilled.
(ab) Furring started to freeze more.
(ac) The working temperature of the engine was found late.

(c)   Thermosyphon Assisted by Pump with Sealed System   : - 

In this system, V. & P.R.V. The cooling system is sealed by placing valves and expansion tanks. There is a pressure release valve to reduce the pressure produced in the system and a vacuum relief valve to reduce the vacuum. A thermostat valve is fitted to quickly achieve the working temperature of the engine.

(aa) Water level does not have to be met again and again.
(ab) Furring is less.
(ac) The boiling point of the cooling fluid increases.
(ad) No need for a large radiator. 

Parts of Cooling system:-

Cooling system consists of the following parts. 

1. Radiator  -

Function of the radiator are as follow-
(a) To store water. 
(b) Cooling of the water. 
It is usually fitted at the front as well as the engine. 

(c) Type of Radiator -

(i)Cellular Type.
(aa) Honey Comb Type.
(ab) Ribbon cellular type.
(ac) Film Type.

(ii) Fins and Tube Type.
(aa) Grilled Tube Type.
(ab) Filled Final Tube Type.
(ac) Steel Wire wound type.

cooling system principle, maintenance

2. Water Pump -

Its function is to speed up the flow of water in the system. 

(a) Type of water pump - 

(i) Impeller Type. (Side to Side).
(ii) Centrifugal type (side to center).
(iii) Centrifugal impeller type (center to side).

3.  Water Jacket:-

It is casted around the engine, when the engine is built, the cylinder head and the cylinder block will be cut as a street for the passage of water. It is called Water Jacket.  Water moves inside it and brings heat of the engine and make help to getting cool the engine.


4. Thermostat Valve:-

Its function is to help the engine to achieve working temperature quickly. 

(a) Type of Thermostat Valve -

(i) Bellow Type.
(ii) Wax Type.
(iii) Bi-metal Type.

5. Fan:-

Its function is to cool the radiator and engine by speeding up the flow of air. It is also placed in front of the engine and behind the radiator. 

(a) Type of Fan.

(i) Normal Fan.
(aa) Inlet Fan.
(ab) Exhaust Fan.

(ii) Automatic Fan.
(aa) Variable Speed ​​Fan.
(ab) Flexible Speed ​​Fan.
(ac) Electric Fan.

6. Fan Shroud:-

This increases the cooling effect as it is placed behind the radiator, it forces the incoming air from inside the radiator and simultaneously increases the performance of the fan. 

cooling system principle, maintenance

7. V&PR Valve:-

The functions of these valves are as follows 
(a) To seal or cover the system. 
(b) Preventing the system from bursting. 
(c) Preventing the system from being tortured. 
(d) Increasing Boiling Temp. 
(e) Do not allow the water level in the system to decrease. 
It is usually placed inside the lid of the radiator but in some trains it is installed in the water expansion tank. In new-age trains, they also have more than one.  

8. Engine Core Plug:-

This is installed as a safety plug in the cylinder block, so that when the engine is overheated and the engine is about to explode or is sizzling, it bursts itself and saves the engine. 

Type of core plug-

(a) Welch Plug Type.
(b) Coupling Plug.
(c) Screw Plug.

Working function of the cooling system:-

There are three working functions of the cooling system these are mention below-
1. Cold Circuit.
2. Hot Circuit.
3. V & PRV Action.

Cooling system maintenance

Cooling System Flush out Procedure, how to clean the system -

Take 5 litre of water in a bucket and make a solution by washing 500 grams of soda in it. Open the system drain cock and drain all the water and close the drain cock and pour the prepared solution into the radiator. Now keep the car running for 2 hours or drive 80 km, then stand the car at the washing point drain cock and radiator cap. Open both. Now keep pouring water from the radiator cap until the clear water starts coming from the drain cock, when the clear water comes, close the drain cock and close the radiator filler cap.  This is also the way to remove furring . 


Coolant is made by mixing ethylene glycol in water.

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