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Structure of Engine and Its Components

Structure of engine and it's working parts and components


Structure of Engine and Its Components

Basically engine has divided into two parts, which are mention below-

1. Static parts.
2. Moving parts. 

Static parts:-

1. Cylinder head. 
2. Cylinder bore. 
3. Upper crank case. 
4. Lower crank case. 

Cylinder head:-

The cylinder head is the topmost part of the engine, the valve is fitted above the cylinder head, the injector and spark plug are fitted above it. The cylinder head is bolted fitted with a cylinder bore with the help of a gasket (seal).

Important  -  Cylinder Head Gasket is made of Steel Asbestos, Rubber Asbestos, Asbestos Rubber. 


Cylinder Block : - 

Cylinder block is also called piston house or it can also be called housing of piston. The piston is supported by a crank shaft and connecting road inside the cylinder block. The cylinder head is fitted upwards with the cylinder block and the lower crank case below. 

Upper Crank Case : - 

Inside the upper crank case, the crank shaft is supported with the help of the main journal, it is the housing of the crank shaft. The upper crank case is casted with a cylinder bore on one side and fitted with a lower crank case from the other side with the help of gaskets and bolts.

Lower Crank Case   : -  

Inside the lower crank case, there is a store of oil for lubrication and together it covers the crank shaft at the bottom, which means that the lid is covered, so that the crank shaft and the ones working with it All parts should be able to escape from dirt and dust. The Lower Crank Case is also known as Oil Sump. The lower crank case is fitted with the upper crank case with the help of gaskets and bolts.  

Moving parts:-

1. Piston. 
2. Gudgeon Pin. 
3. Connecting Rod. 
4. Crank Shaft. 
5. Cam shaft. 
6. Fly Wheel. 
7. Valve 

Piston: - 

The   piston converts the hit energy into mechanical energy. Because of the combustion the pressure of the heat is act on the piston head during power stroke , which causes the piston T.D.C. From BDC Does the action of And heat energy converts into mechanical energy. The same mechanical power goes from the engine to the tires that drive the vehicle. 

There are several types of pistons: -

(i) plane head type piston. 
(ii) doom head type piston. 
(iii) crown head type piston. 
(iv) concave head type piston. 
(v) convex head type piston. 
(vi) mushroom head type piston. 
(vii) Slotted Head Type Piston. 

Gudgeon Pin: - 

The work of the gudgeon Pin is to connect the piston and connecting road together.
The gudgeon pin connects the piston and connecting road with the help of bush bearing.  

There are two types of Gudgeon pins: -

(i) By design -           

(a) Solid type (b) Hollow type

(ii) By work -           

(a) Semi floating Type. (b) Fully floating type. 

Connecting Road : -

The connecting road keeps the piston and crank soft. There are two ends of the connecting road, one end is small, it is small end and one end which is big is called big end. The small end of the connecting road inside an engine cylinder is fitted with a piston with the help of gauze pins and bush bearings, and the big end is fitted with a crane soft with cell bearing. Connecting road is of two types - (I) H type connecting road - this hollow between not have | (ii) I type connecting road - It is hollow from the middle.

Crank Shaft: - 

Crank shaft uppers fit inside the crank case with the help of the main journal, it changes the rotation of direction of the mechanical drive coming from the piston. 

Cam shaft: -

Cam shaft takes the drive from crank shaft and then operates the valve in a timely manner. Cam shaft also fits in the upper crank case with the help of a journal, but in today's vehicles it is also fitted above the cylinder head, which is also known as Over Head Cam shaft. Apart from this, by cutting a separate chemically on the Cam shaft, the fuel feed pump, oil pump and oil pump and A.C. Drive is also given to the pump (AC Pump) as well as the distributor of cut off Skew gear

Fly wheel: - 

The functions of fly wheel are as follows -
(i) Helping the engine to start with the help of a starter ring.
(ii) Surviving three dead strokes.
(iii) To store kinetic energy.
(v) Housing of the clutch also means to cover the clutch.
(vi) Maintaining the continuity of the drive.
The fly wheel is fitted with bolts on the back side of the crank shaft.

There are two type of Fly wheels -

(i) Ring Gear Detachable type.
(ii) Ring Gear Non detachable type.


As the name suggests, the valve that controls a path is called a valve, whether it is a path of water or air. Here we are getting information about the engine, then we will talk about the air, that the fresh air entering the engine cylinder and the control of the exhaust gases (smoke) is called the valve which controls the instrument.  The valve is fitted to the cylinder head. Valves are as follows -   

(i) according to the work         

(a) Inlet valve 
(b) Exhaust valve 

(ii) By design  

(a) Poppet valve

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