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Battery and coil ignition system

What is ignition system and how many type of ignition system, explain the battery and coil ignition system, method for advance and retard of ignition system


What is Ignition System:-

The mixture of air and fuel inside an SI Engine cylinder is lit by giving a fire spark, the system that has been put in place to produce this spark is called the Ignition System.

Functions of ignition system:-

1. Change the LT current of 6, 12, 24 volt to HT current of 10000 to 30000 volt, so that the combustion can cause spark in the chamber.

2. Sparking every sparking plug at the right time according to the Firing Order.


Only 6,12, and 24 volt batteries are used in India.

What is ignition system and how many type of ignition system

Type of Ignition System:-

It is of the following type-

1. Battery and Coil Ignition System.

2. Magneto Ignition System

3. Ballast Resistor Ignition System.

4. Transistorized Ignition System.

5. Magnetically controlled ignition system.

6. Electronic Ignition System.

7.    Capacitor Discharge Ignition System.   

Battery and Coil Ignition System:-

1. Parts of the Battery and Coil ignition system:-

  • Battery.
  • Starter Motor / Solenoid
  • Amp meter.
  • Ignition Switch.
  • Coil Box.
  • Ignition Distributor.
  • Sparking Plug.
  • HT Lead.

2. Working function of Battery and coil ignition system:-

It has two working function which are as follows-

(a) LT Circuit:-

When the key is put in the vehicle in the on position, then the LT current Starter motor, Amp meter from the battery goes through the ignition switch from the input of the coil box to the primary winding. 

 It passes through the capacitor in the distributor and goes through the CB point circuit breaker) LT circuit remains complete due to the CB point being met. 

What is battery and coil ignition system

(b) HT Circuit:-

As soon as the driver turns the ignition switch, the current starter motor is received from the battery, which causes the starter motor to rotate and the crank shaft, camshaft, and distributor also rotates and the CB point is separated which breaks the LT circuit. He and current go back. 

Going back at that time, the current also gives the current stored in the capacitor so that it becomes a bit more powerful, while at the same time a magnetic field is created due to the LT circuit inside the coil box. 

But the EMF cut by the LT circuit breakdown cuts the secondary winding, causing HT current in the secondary winding that goes through the HT output to the center segment of the distributor, which goes to different spark plugs.        


Coil Box works on the principle of Mutual Induction. 

What is Mutual Induction:-

There is a soft iron core inside the coil box with primary winding above it and secondary winding above it. During the LT circuit when the LT current passes through the primary winding, the soft iron core in the coil box magnetized and creates an EMF (Electro Magnetic Force). 

But when the LT Circuit breaks, the soft iron core De-magnetized back and induce the EMF to move back in. During this time, the EMF cuts off the secondary winding causing HT current in the secondary winding, this action is Mutual This is called induction. 

This action is repeated in the coil box, due to which it becomes hot, so Paraffin Oil is filled in it so that it remains cool.  

Method of advance and retard of ignition system

3. Methods of Ignition Timing Advance or Retard:-

The ignition timing of each vehicle is different according to the requirement, in a vehicle it is set before reaching the TDC from the piston and later in the others. 

The ignition that is done before Piston reaches TDC is called Advance and what is done later is called Retard. It has the following methods -

(a) Initial Advance. - 12 Degree before TDC.

(b) Vacuum Advance Assembly. - 25 Degree before TDC.

(c) Centrifugal Advance Assembly. - 34 Degree before TDC.

(d) Octane Selector Plate. - 10 Degree before SI after TDC. 



4. The way to check the   Ignition System Serviciability:-

There are two ways to check whether the Ignition System is correct or not, which is as follows -

(i)    Series Check:-              

(a)   Required item:-  

  •          Side Cutting Plier.
  •          Screw driver
  •          Inspection lamp.
  •          Neon Lamp.
  •          Insulation Tape.

(b)    Method:-

Open the HT lead from the terminal of the HT output of the Coil box. Place one lead of the neon lamp on the terminal of the HT output and earth the other lead with the body of the car. 

Now open the LT output lead of the coil box, then attach one lead of the Inspection lamp above the LT output and the other lead with the LT lead going to the distributor. 

Now turn on the ignition switch and lightly crank the engine so that the inspection point lamp should be turned on when the CB point is found and the neon lamp should be on when the CB point is broken. If it does not, then check the entire circuit which is as follows -   

If the Inspection lamp is not on, then the LT circuit is defective. And if the neon lamp does not burn, then the Coil box is defective. 


(ii)    Parallel Check:-  

(a)    Required item:-

  •          Side Cutting Plier.
  •          Screw driver
  •          Inspection lamp.
  •          Neon Lamp.
  •          Insulation Tape.

(b)    Method:-

Connect one lead of the inspection lamp without opening the HT output terminal and earth the other lead with the body, now turn on the ignition switch and crank the engine, inspection point on CB point breakdown. Should be on and lamp should be off when CB point is found. If it does not, check the LT circuit.  

We hope that the information given will prove beneficial for you, if there is a word which is not understood in this topic or if you want more information about a word, then message it. Thank you.

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